adequate protection of a majority of migratory bird species

information to the field (i.e., the author is not citing other authors) and use this information to craft your in-text citation.

The in-text citation may come at the beginning of the sentence such as: Runge et al. (2015) found that protected areas are not large enough for the adequate protection of a majority of migratory bird species. Or at the end of your sentence, such as: Migratory bird species were found to be less protected than non- migratory species, because the size of protected areas is often inadequate for at least part of their annual cycle (Runge et al. 2015). Note, it is also O.K. to include in-text citations in the middle of sentences or to have numerous citations within the same sentence. Note that ONLY the LAST name of the author appears, no initials or first names. If the article was written by only two authors both of their last names would appear in the in-text citation (Runge and Watson 2015, for example).

An example of what I expect to see is provided below:

Bezte, C. and Osborne O. 2019. On the bizarre tendencies of University of Winnipeg instructors. Journal of Pseudopsychology 21(2): 12 – 20. (you find this “hanging indent” formatting option under Line Spacing Options/Paragraph Indentation…)

It has been reported that Candi Bezte can often be seen talking to herself in Room 1L10 while she pretends to teach a class to invisible students (Bezte and Osborne 2019, 14). (i.e., page 14) OR

Bezte and Osborne (2019) found that students learn better when they engage with the material they are learning (16). (i.e., page 16).

Danovaro, R., Bongiorni L., Corinaldesi, C., Giovanelli, D., Damiani, E., Astolfi, P., Greci, L. and Pusceddu, A. 2008. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching by promoting viral infections. Environ Health Perspect. 116(4): 441-447. (note that this is an example of a research paper – it contains a methods section).

Sunscreens contribute to the bleaching of hard corals by stimulating latent viral infections in their symbiotic algae (Danovaro et al. 2008, 446). Note that 446 is the page number where this information was found).

Schindler, D.W. 2012. The dilemma of controlling cultural eutrophication in lakes. Proc. R. Soc. B. 279: 4322-4333; doi:10.1098/rspb.2012.1032 (online 22 August 2012). (Note that this is an example of a review paper. It summarizes what is known in the field to date (the date it was written).

Another in-text citation sentence goes here – note that these are to be double-spaced and DO NOT have a hanging indent.

ENV1600: Online 2020 Citations and Summary – Assignment 1 -4-


Choose 1 primary/original research article and create a summary as described below. Note, you do not need in-text citations within your summary as all of the information should come directly from the article you have just cited above it (this is like a mini version of an annotated bibliography). On this page you WILL be repeating one of the citations as you provided it on the Citations page.

You need to summarize your article in one paragraph of no more than 250 words (double spaced please). This must be in your own words: copying and pasting any sentences from the paper, including the abstract, is plagiarism (notable marks will be lost for this)! That being said, ALL information must come from the article. No input/interpretation from you is required. Using some of the words in the article is fine, especially for a summary!

Your paragraph should summarize:

– The topic of the paper

– The question that the paper was trying to answer

– The methods the authors used to answer the question

– 1-2 major results the authors found

– The broader implications of the findings

Here is an example of a paper summarized in an annotated bibliography using the colour-coded text above to guide you. The research paper itself that this summary is based on is also provided under Assignment 1 so you will have an example to follow.

Runge, C.A., Watson J.E., Butchart, S.H.M., Hanson, J.O., Possingham, H.P. and Fuller, R.A. 2015. Protected areas and global conservation of birds. Science. 350: 1255-1258.

The populations of migratory birds are declining worldwide, and threats to these birds at any part of their annual cycle can affect the entire population. The establishment of protected areas is a commonly- used tool for preventing the loss of species, however, it is unknown to what extent the distributions of migratory birds fall within protected areas as opposed to unprotected areas. By overlapping maps of the world’s protected areas with maps of the distribution of the world’s birds (both migratory and non- migratory), the authors calculated that 91% of all migratory bird species did not have adequate coverage of protected areas for at least one part of their annual cycle. Migratory species were less protected than non-migratory species. This suggests that those overseeing expansions of protected areas should consider placing them to better cover the distributions of migratory bird species throughout their annual cycle.

Please colour code your summary as above and highlight the key text in your article where you pulled the information from – marks will be deducted for not doing so. If you cannot highlight within the pdf, (be sure that you have downloaded Adobe Acrobat (free) onto your system), please include the page and

ENV1600: Online 2020 Citations and Summary – Assignment 1 -5-

paragraph number following the highlighted text in your article. This summary is concise, but must contain detailed enough information to be useful. It may also be referred to as an annotated bibliography. In an annotated bibliography all information comes from the article, there is no interpretation other than that offered by the author of the article and there are no opinions or extra interpretive text required. This IS NOT a paper. Also, because it is clear that all information is from the preceding article citation, no in-text citations are required within your article summary – which is why it is very key that you include the full citation above your summary.

SUMMARY OF ASSIGNMENT REQUIREMENTS:In the end, for this entire assignment you will have a title page, a “Citations” page and a “Summary” page. Your “Citations” page will have 3 complete citations (properly formatted with a hanging indent and single-spacing, as above in the Runge et al. 2105 citation) and below each citation you will have a single sentence that you created using information from the article with a correctly formatted in-text citation. Your “Summary” page will have a full citation for the primary article you summarized at the top, followed by a summary of the article as described above. While your goal is to keep your summary under 250 words, you should aim between 230-250 words. Being too concise or general does not result in a useful summary.


Your assignment should be typewritten in either Times New Roman 12pt font or Calibri 11pt with normal margins (2.54 cm on all sides). Follow the instructions above and refer to Assignment Formatting and Citation Guidelines for ENV0-1600 posted on Nexus under Assignments for additional formatting instructions.

Your assignment should be written in academic English with proper spelling, grammar, and punctuation.

SUBMISSION AND GRADINGPlease submit your assignment in a .doc or .docx format AND your highlighted citations in pdf format

under Assessments/Assignments/Assignment 1 – Citations and Summary.

When submitting your assignment, it is vitally important that you also submit pdf versions of the articles that you used to create your assignment (you will lose marks for not handing in the citations in this format with your assignment and it will be difficult to properly mark your assignment).

Your assignment will be graded and returned to you within two weeks of submission.

This assignment will be worth 10% of your final grade and will be marked according to the following basic rubric. 5% for Title Page and Citations and 5% for the article Summary

Basic Marking Rubric for Citations and Summary

Really looking for your ability to follow instructions. Marks will be subtracted for not doing so in the following ways. The citations need to appear as they will in the Literature Cited section of your final paper as per the provided instructions in Assignment Formatting and Citation Guidelines for ENV- 1600, which is:

• Alphabetical order

ENV1600: Online 2020 Citations and Summary – Assignment 1 -6-

• Single spaced with a hanging indent (note, the text of the in-text citation sample sentences and annotation/article summary following the citation will be double spaced and should not have a hanging indent)

The following will also be assessed:

You correctly created 3 sentences with properly formatted in-text citations

You annotated/summarized one primary article

You provided all of your articles as downloaded pdf attachments (no links)

You did not use excessive verbiage to summarize your article

Your wording was clear and concise and followed the example provided

You did not add your own interpretation to the article – an annotated bibliography or article

summary is a direct summary of what is in the article, with NO interpretation from anyone else

Your in-text citation sentences and article summary must appear immediately following the

citation, so it is clear where the information came from…which is why you don’t need to create a

separate Literature Cited Section for this assignment.

The quality of your articles is good (they are peer-reviewed and not too old).


If you need help you are strongly encouraged to make use of the University of Winnipeg’s Writing Centre ( These professional tutors are free for you to access. Getting help from the Writing Centre does not count as plagiarism or cheating.

Make an appointment with a UWinnipeg Librarian. They are the experts on research and citation, and they are there to help you (unavailable this spring due to COVID-19, though online help/appointments are still available).

Be clear and concise in your article summary, but make it detailed enough that it is as informative as possible within your 250 words (your article summary should likely not be less than 230 words).

Use spell checker and grammar checker or Grammarly to improve your writing.

Do follow the instructions in Assignment Formatting and Citation Guidelines for ENV-1600 posted

under assignments on Nexus.

For additional information on how to cite literature in your paper – feel free to check out this Quick Guide to Scientific Style and Format at , however, where there are differences between the manual and your provided examples, please follow the provided examples within your assignments and the formatting and citation guideline documents created for you.

Please do NOT use quotations in your assignment. There is no need to copy any text from any of your papers within this assignment and in scientific writing it is very rare to ever directly quote an author…it is a very good idea to refrain from doing so, unless absolutely necessary to make a specific point. This also applies to your paper.