create the underlying structure of the house

When you build a house, the first thing you do is plan and create the underlying structure of the house–the part of the house behind and within the walls that may not be noticed if it’s done well, but that will certainly be noticed if it’s done poorly. Speaking in public is similar in some ways to building a house. While audience notice a speaker’s delivery, they may not notice the organization of the speech unless it’s so poorly planned that the speech seems to ramble without a point. Good speaking, in contrast, follows patterns of practical reasoning that the audience can understand and accept, and good speakers tend to organize their speeches in ways that follow such patterns.

  1. In your initial post, use the handout about organizational patterns to help you briefly outline a speech that might employ one of those patterns. You only need to list the main points of the potential topic. Please steer clear of overdone speech topics, such as gun control, abortion, marijuana laws, exercise and dieting, or other popular but contentious social issues. Use the vocabulary from your readings to describe the types of evidence and logical patterns; you may include outside research for additional examples or explanation. Submit your completed outline for your primary post; please submit as text, not as an attachment, as attachments will not be graded. You should select a single outline structure (the category should be appropriate for your topic and outline type) and a single topic and create a basic outline for the discussion board. Cite every outside source you use, including your readings.

Examples from classmate

The outline I’ll be using is the Ascending pattern from the topical category. This is the most common speech form I’ve heard personally. It’s easy to follow and build upon, in most cases.

My speech is over why nursing homes should have service dogs for their patients.

I am starting with the least important points in my speech, then work my way up to the biggest points.

1. Everyone loves animals

1a. Animals, especially dogs, are an innate part of our culture

2. Dogs can do a lot of amazing things

2a. Rescue dogs, acrobatics, racing, military/police dogs, service dogs etc.

3. Nursing homes are lacking emotional stability for their patients

4. The answer is service dogs

4a. They can do multiple tasks and well as comfort the patients

4b. Keeps animals off the streets, out of animal shelters, and gives them something they were created to do.

Examples from classmate

The outline I chose was the problem-solution outline. I am going to continue with the speech on how verbal abuse effects children. With this will outline the problem, cause solution, identify the problem explain causes & how to fix the problem.

  • Main point- Verbal abuse can tear down the self esteem of children; reshaping how they see themselves causing underlying issues that are prevalent as you get older (statistically backed)
  • Explain the causes of the situation
  • Cause solution- Understanding what verbal is and recognizing triggers & what causes us to verbally lash out
  • Solution- RETHINK Method & Others methods to help understand how to refrain from using verbal abuse
  • Conclusion- To get the audience to think about how a few small, but impactful, words can build a child up vs. using language to tear down- ending with a quote

American Board of Pediatrics

Building a Framework for Spoken Messages

Examples from classmate

Topic: The benefits of implementing music therapy to reduce the stress/test anxiety in students before an exam (Using Problem-Solution arrangement Barnett (2017))

Specific Purpose Statement: To both inform and persuade the audience of the importance of improving one’s coping strategies as by the adoption of music therapy prior to the stressful situation of taking a test.

Thesis: The implementation of music therapy can decrease test anxiety and thereby stress in student’s regardless of major, and increase performance when done prior to test taking. Music therapy is beneficial because it reinforces the student’s positive coping mechanisms.

I.  Student’s test anxiety is a serious problem as it negatively impacts performance. (problem)

A. Find source that goes over defining what test anxiety is and maybe a brief outline of affects on person’s physiology when experiencing test anxiety (problems with recall and specific examples of where it brings the focus away from the test).

II. Music therapy can reduce test anxiety, stress and thereby increase performance of students on their exams. (solution)

A.  Cite study from International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health: Effects of Aromatherapy Combined with Music therapy on anxiety, stress, and fundamental nursing skills in nursing students: A randomized Controlled Trial (2019). Finding: “aromatherapy combined with music therapy was associated with a significant decrease in test anxiety, state anxiety, and stress, and significantly increased student’s fundamental nursing skill performance compared with the other separate intervention groups (p.9).

I. Participants were instructed to show up 40 minutes prior to test. Listened to music for 20 minutes prior to test (Beethoven’s Moonlight Sonota-as this song had already been demonstrated to reduce both test and state anxiety, improving bp, pulse rate and academic performance in college students (Son et al.,2019)

II. Random assignment to one of three intervention groups: 1)aromatherapy group 2)music therapy group 3) combined aromatherapy and music therapy groups.

III. Music therapy works by basically stimulating the nervous system and Son et al., 2019 make this point in showing how it specifically targets the limbic system in the brain, whose function is to control emotions (p.2). (argument can go better emotional control equals better coping and increased ability to focus whereas anxiety works against you by negatively stimulating the nervous system; music therapy prior to a test positively stimulates nervous system)


Find source that refutes benefit of music therapy’s benefit as to build credibility and opportunity for rebuttal.

Conclusion: (something like) In summary, test anxiety negatively impacts a student’s performance during test taking as there is a physiological basis of the anxiety impairing student’s ability. For numerous reasons, this anxiety acts as an impediment to calmly analyze a question and be confident in one’s ability to reason through problems and recall past information. Music therapy has been shown in research studies to provide a benefit to students with test-taking anxiety in reducing this anxiety and their stress levels which allow them to perform better on tests.


Barnett, J.T. (2017). Public Speaking: The Virtual Textbook. Pennsylvania: Millersville University. Retrieved from (Links to an external site.).

Son, H. K., So, W., & Kim, M. (2019). Effects of aromatherapy combined with music therapy on anxiety, stress, and fundamental nursing skills in nursing students: A randomized controlled trial. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(21), 4185. doi:10.3390/ijerph16214185