1 Answer the following questions regarding international law, international organizations, realism, liberalism, and Marxism.
a) Which of the following international organizations, if any, is capable of making international law? intergovernmental organizations (IGOs), supranational organizations, international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs), or multinational corporations (MNCs)? Be sure to explain your answer. (11 points)
Since there is no world government, international law is created through agreements between two or more states and enforced by states. Seeing how international law takes agreements and treaties between two states, this would include IGOs and supranational organizations in the international law-making process since two or more states are required to be members of these IOs. Although MNC’s are subject to international law and INGOs usually influence international law through advocacy, they are not able to make international law directly.
b) Which of the following international organizations, if any, would individual citizens be capable of joining? IGOs, supranational organizations, INGOs, or MNCs? Be sure to explain your answer. (11 points)
Individuals would be able to join INGO’s. INGO’s typically higher individuals who are experts in a certain field because they are responsible for providing expert analysis. Additionally, individuals are needed on the ground, directly involved with the problem, in order to find the facts required for managing problems. For IGO’s and supranational organizations, only states-meaning a country and their government- can join. These IGO’s can be categorized by certain criteria. Individuals can join the company of the MNC, but individuals themselves cannot be MNC’s. Companies such as McDonalds and Microsoft are good examples of an MNC.
c) In the international relations subfield of political science, there are (at least) three definitions of the term “state”. Which of these definitions is a scholar using if she writes, “In the 21st century, most wars are intrastate, rather than interstate.” Be sure to explain your answer. (11 points)
d) It is uncontroversial that there is no single, global government and thus international relations can be characterized as “anarchic”. However, one can reasonably argue that international relations is also characterized by a patchwork of government and a vibrant “civil society.” For what reasons might someone make such a claim? Be sure to explain your answer. (11 points)
e) President Trump has been very critical of IGOs, complaining that the United States contributes too much to some of these organizations (in terms of dues and/or security assistance) and that IGOs too often violate countries’ sovereignty. What is one reason why a realist might argue that President Trump’s stance towards IGOs is shortsighted and will likely lead to a decline in American power around the world? Be sure to explain how this critique flows from a realist worldview. (11 points)
f) What is one reason why a liberal might argue that President Trump’s stance towards IGOs is shortsighted and will likely lead to a less prosperous and/or secure United States? Be sure to explain how this critique flows from a liberal worldview. (11 points)
g) Who is likelier to be more concerned about President Trump’s embrace of non-democratic leaders (e.g., Kim Jong Un and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan) and his criticisms of democratic leaders (e.g., Justin Trudeau and Angela Merkel), a liberal or a realist? Be sure to explain why a liberal (realist) would be more concerned than a realist (liberal). (11 points)
h) Who is the most likely to be supportive of President Trump’s “America First” and somewhat “isolationist” foreign policy, a realist, a liberal, or a Marxist? When answering the question, be sure to explain why an individual with this worldview would be likelier than the individuals with the other worldviews to support President Trump’s policy. (11 points)
i) Many realists and Marxists would agree that IGOs generally further the narrow self-interest of the wealthiest and most powerful states in the world. However, realists and Marxists would disagree about what “interest” these states are pursuing. How would the realist and Marxist views differ in terms of the “interest” pursued by the wealthiest and most powerful states in IGOs? (11 points)
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